Since the mid-eighteenth century, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere due to human activities. These anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have caused an increase in the average air temperature, changed precipitation patterns, increased the duration and intensity of storm events, and promoted sea level rise. While most policy efforts have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the warming trend will continue for several centuries even if emissions are stabilized because of the inertia of the global climate system. Therefore, policymakers and practitioners will need to select effective adaptation strategies to cope with a changing climate. Although the building stock interacts with energy use, transportation patterns, and public health, most recent assessments of climate change have failed to address the role of buildings in adapting to climate change. This research project closes this knowledge gap. For full reports and project information supported by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), please view University at Buffalo School of Architecture and Planning website. The following are publications from recently completed research:

Journal Articles:

  1. Rajkovich, Nicholas B. 2016. A System of Professions Approach to Reducing Heat Exposure in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Michigan Journal of Sustainability 4: 81-101. (doi: 10.3998/mjs.12333712.0004.007)
  2. Rajkovich, Nicholas B., and Larissa Larsen. 2016. A Bicycle-Based Field Measurement System for the Study of Thermal Exposure in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13: n. pag. (doi: 10.3390/ijerph13020159)
  3. Pyke, Chris, Sean McMahon, Larissa Larsen, Nicholas B. Rajkovich, and Adam Rohloff. 2012. Development and analysis of Climate Sensitivity and Climate Adaptation opportunities indices for buildings. Building and Environment 55(9): 141-149. (doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.02.020)
  4. Conlon, Kathryn C., Rajkovich, Nicholas B., White-Newsome, Jalonne., Larsen, Larissa, & Marie S. O’Neill. 2011. Preventing cold-related morbidity and mortality in a changing climate. Maturitas 69 (3): 197-202. (doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.04.004)
  5. Kwok, Alison G., and Nicholas B. Rajkovich. 2010. Addressing climate change in comfort standards. Building and Environment 45(1): 18-22. (doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.02.005)

Edited Collections:

  1. Cheng, Susan, Rebecca Mandell, Nicholas B. Rajkovich, Sarah Mills, Missy Stults, Patrick Harlin, Lingli He, Thomas Jenkinson, Lauren Stadler, Michelle Reicher Newstadt, and Brian Vickers, editors. 2014. Michigan Journal of Sustainability, Volume 2. (doi: 10.3998/mjs.12333712.0002.001)
  2. Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Irem Daloglu, Tara Clancy, Susan Cheng, Brian Vickers, Dana Kornberg, and Erica Morrell, editors. 2013. Michigan Journal of Sustainability, Volume 1. (doi: 10.3998/mjs.12333712.0001.002)
  3. Walliser, Andres, Nicholas B. Rajkovich, and John Forester, editors. 2012. Exploring the Challenges of Environmental Planning and Green Design: Cases from Europe and the USA. Planning Theory & Practice 13 (1). (doi: 10.1080/14649357.2012.652007)

Other Publications:

  1. Holmes, Seth, Nicholas B. Rajkovich, and Fahed Baker. 2017. Optimizing a parametric energy model for use in citywide residential overheating analysis. International Building Performance Simulation Association Building Simulation 2017 Conference, August 7-9, 2017 at San Francisco, California. (
  2. Hondula, David M. et al. 2018. “An unlikely climate collaboration: two mid-sized cities are working together to beat extreme heat and cold” for Medium:
  3. Rajkovich, Nicholas B. 2017. “Cities need more than air conditioning to get through heat waves” for The Conversation: Article republished by,, San Francisco Chronicle, and others.
  4. Michael St. John et al. 2016. From Sandy to Snowvember: Climate Change and Buildings in New York State: 
  5. Rajkovich, Nicholas B. and Krista Macy. 2016. “Thermal Comfort” and “Indoor Air Quality” design resources for the innovative solutions for Universal Design (isUD™) project website:
  6. Rajkovich, Nicholas B. 2015. “An Introduction to Climate Change in Cleveland and Cuyahoga County” for the Cuyahoga County Office of Emergency Management periodical EMA Review:
  7. Rajkovich, Nicholas B. 2015. “Summer in the City: Preparing the Built Environment for Extreme Heat Events” for the AIA Blueprints for Senior Living: